Mentally retarded (16)


Volition is often referredd to as being the most inmportant subsystem in determining an individuel's engagement in occupation (Haglund & Kjellberg, 1999) Volition is defined as a collection of dispositions and self-knowlegde that predisposes and enables persons to anticipate, choose, experience, and interpret their occupational behavior.


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Multisensory environments are specially designed to enable individuals with learning disabilities to enjoy a wide range of sensory experiences. The author, a lecturer in occupational therapy, outlines the history and features of multisensory environments. Using two case studies, he illustrates how they can be used in successful therapeutic interventions. The article reviews the function of multisensory environments for children with learning disabilities.

Abstract :

Are bright lights, perfumed air, coloured bubbles and soft music the answer to the  “apartheid” that people who have been described as having physical/learning disabilities/difficulties have been subjected to in Education and Community Living?


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Background The Snoezelen is a multisensory intervention approach that has been implemented with various populations. Due to an almost complete absence of rigorous research in this field, the confirmation of this approach as an effective therapeutic intervention is warranted.

Method To evaluate the therapeutic influence of the Snoezelen approach. Twenty-eight relevant articles relating to individual (one-to-one) Snoezelen intervention with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) were reviewed. A meta-analysis regarding the significance of the reduction of maladaptive behaviour and the enhancement of adaptive behaviour was implemented. An analysis of standardised mean differences was used through the use of fixed effect models.

Results The primary finding was that the Snoezelen approach, when applied as an individual intervention for individuals with IDD, enabled significant and large effect size in adaptive behaviours, with generalisation to the participants' daily life.

Conclusions Weaknesses in the examined research methodologies, the heterogeneity between research designs, the small number of available research projects, and the small number of participants in each research project, prevent a confirmation of this method as a valid therapeutic intervention at this time.

Meir Lotan1*, Christian Gold2
1Ariel University Campus at Samaria, Ariel, Israel
2Unifob Health, Bergen, Norway
*Correspondence: Meir Lotan, 67th Rothschild Street, Kfar-Saba, Israel, 44201 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Objectives. Regular access to a multi-sensory environment (MSE or Snoezelen room) was compared with a non-complex sensory environment for individuals with learning disabilities. We also tested the prediction that those individuals whose challenging behaviour was maintained by sensory consequences would benefit most from exposure to the MSE.




The past 15 years have seen a marked increase in the use of Snoezelen with a wide range of groups including people with intellectual disabilities. Research has been undertaken with respect to a variety of behaviors, notably changes in affect, challenging behavior, relaxation and interactions with both other persons and objects.


The Graduate School of Education,

The authors are grateful to Dr. B. Brown of the School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, who helped with the construction of the isotropic photographic system. They also thank the children, parents and teachers who contributed to the study and the Australian National Health & Medical Research Council and The Australian Research Grants Scheme for grants supporting the longitudinal study of Down syndrome.

On 10 april appears in Section 5 of the phenomenality series. KLOS-TV is for 25 years the production company that makes films for people with intellectual disabilities

Why a new episode phenomenality?
Phenomenality 5 is a response to the many positive reactions and the resulting demand for new episodes from the healthcare sector.

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To examine multi-sensory programs for disabled students and how these programs will assist students acquire and develop functional skills to further their independence and quality of life.

February, '05

St Vincent founded the Daughters of Charity organisation in France in the year 1633. They have been working in Israel since 1886, and the institute for the handicapped was built in the year 1964 .


Snoezelen, mental handicap, aggression, self-injury




Effects of Snoezelen room, Activities of Daily Living skills training, and Vocational skills training on aggression and self-injury by adults with mental retardation and mental illness.

Although this position paper was written in 1998 and some of the material is outdated due to the advancement of the sciences; I feel the basic philosophy and concepts remain current.

I have put the paper unedited here, but it was accompanied by a video tape of a consumer's experience and behavioral changes documented over a six week period in the Snoezelen room. During this period in time, I utilized the Snoezelen Modality exclusively as a method of relaxation to help someone change their own behavior. By this I mean the equipment, music and projected images were slow, soft and never intense. What I now call the Phase One or Traditional Relaxation Phase. The objectives were to:


Snoezelen or controlled multi-sensory stimulation was first introduced in Israel in1993. This paper presents a new concept of working with the whole family in the Snoezelen room with the participation of a social worker. The purpose was to facilitate family encounters with the child, to enable parents and siblings to become better acquainted with the resident through his/her strengths and special abilities, to encourage parental involvement in the care, to encourage increased visits, to improve quality of life (QoL) for the resident and to reinforce a better relationship between resident, family and home. Sessions were divided into two major parts. The first segment (duration 20-40)

Today in Israel with a total population of over 6 million persons the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR) provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID). Of the 23,000 persons residential services are provided to more than 6,000 persons in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 persons are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops or integrated care in the community.

Clients with learning disabilities who reside in institutions for years are usually under stimulated with little motivation to engage in purposeful activity. Some of the clients may result in a search for sensory satisfaction through self-injurious or self-stimulating behaviour.

Children who have severe or moderate mental retardation may find their immediate environment chaotic, frightening, confusing and unstimulating. They may respond to this situation with behavioural disturbances (self stimulating behaviours: hand flapping, rocking, etc), which could be due to sensory dysfunction. One explanation offered to explain behavioural disturbances, is that these behaviours often fill a sensory need. Other reasons for these maladaptive behaviours could be a desire for social attention, or escape from aversive situations such as task demands.